Advertisement

Relationship between dental and basal arch forms in mandibular anterior crowding

  • Makiko Kato
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthodontics, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, The Nippon Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
    Search for articles by this author
  • Kazuhito Arai
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Kazuhito Arai, Department of Orthodontics, The Nippon Dental University, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, 1-9-20 Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8159, Japan.
    Affiliations
    Department of Orthodontics, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, The Nippon Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
    Search for articles by this author
Published:December 03, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2020.06.046

      Highlights

      • We evaluated dental and basal arches in patients with mandibular anterior crowding (MnAC).
      • Dental and basal widths were significantly correlated, except at canines in MnAC.
      • Dental widths and basal widths at the posterior adjacent teeth are highly correlated.
      • Creating a dental arch form on the basis of the posterior basal arch is proposed for MnAC.

      Introduction

      Positive correlations between the mandibular dental and basal arch forms in patients with minimum crowding have been observed; however, the relationship in orthodontic patients with mandibular anterior crowding (MnAC) remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated this relationship in patients with MnAC requiring premolar extraction.

      Methods

      Thirty women with normal occlusion (mean age, 20.6 ± 2.5 years) and 30 women with Class I MnAC (mean age, 20.3 ± 2.9 years) were selected as control and MnAC groups, respectively. The widths and depths of the mandibular dental and basal arches at the FA and WALA points were measured and compared between groups. Relationships between the arch widths at the FA and WALA points were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient.

      Results

      Larger variances were found for dental arch widths at canine and premolars and depth at canine in the MnAC group. Positive correlations were observed between dental and corresponding basal arch widths for both groups, except at the canine in the MnAC group, and higher correlations were observed between dental arch widths for all teeth except the first molar and basal arch widths for posterior adjacent teeth when comparing the corresponding basal arch widths.

      Conclusions

      The positive correlations observed between the dental and basal arch widths suggest the basal arch widths at the posterior adjacent tooth can be used as an additional reference to create an individualized postorthodontic dental arch form for MnAC patients.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • Buschang P.H.
        • Shulman J.D.
        Incisor crowding in untreated persons 15-50 years of age: United States, 1988-1994.
        Angle Orthod. 2003; 73: 502-508
        • Proffit W.R.
        • Fields H.W.
        • Moray L.J.
        Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in the United States: estimates from the NHANES III survey.
        Int J Adult Orthod Orthognath Surg. 1998; 13: 97-106
        • Buschang P.H.
        Class I malocclusions–The development and etiology of mandibular malalignments.
        Semin Orthod. 2014; 20: 3-15
        • Ting T.Y.
        • Wong R.W.
        • Rabie A.B.
        Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in skeletal Class I crowding.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011; 140: e9-15
        • Moreno Uribe L.M.
        • Miller S.F.
        Genetics of the dentofacial variation in human malocclusion.
        Orthod Craniofac Res. 2015; 18: 91-99
        • Rönnerman A.
        The effect of early loss of primary molars on tooth eruption and space conditions. A longitudinal study.
        Acta Odontol Scand. 1977; 35: 229-239
        • Pirilä-Parkkinen K.
        • Pirttiniemi P.
        • Nieminen P.
        • Tolonen U.
        • Pelttari U.
        • Löppönen H.
        Dental arch morphology in children with sleep-disordered breathing.
        Eur J Orthod. 2009; 31: 160-167
        • Ackerman J.L.
        • Proffit W.R.
        Soft tissue limitations in orthodontics: treatment planning guidelines.
        Angle Orthod. 1997; 67: 327-336
        • Fastlicht J.
        Crowding of mandibular incisors.
        Am J Orthod. 1970; 58: 156-163
        • Doris J.M.
        • Bernard B.W.
        • Kuftinec M.M.
        • Stom D.
        A biometric study of tooth size and dental crowding.
        Am J Orthod. 1981; 79: 326-336
        • Puri N.
        • Pradhan K.L.
        • Chandna A.
        • Sehgal V.
        • Gupta R.
        Biometric study of tooth size in normal, crowded, and spaced permanent dentitions.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007; 132 (279.e7-279.e14)
        • Angle E.H.
        Treatment of malocclusion of the teeth: Angle’s system.
        White Dental Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia1907
        • Brash J.C.
        The aetiology of irregularity and malocclusion of the teeth.
        2nd ed. Dental Board of the United Kingdom, London1956
        • Corruccini R.S.
        • Whitley L.D.
        Occlusal variation in a rural Kentucky community.
        Am J Orthod. 1981; 79: 250-262
        • Mills L.F.
        Arch width, arch length, and tooth size in young adult males.
        Angle Orthod. 1964; 34: 124-129
        • Howe R.P.
        • McNamara J.A.
        • O’Connor K.A.
        An examination of dental crowding and its relationship to tooth size and arch dimension.
        Am J Orthod. 1983; 83: 363-373
        • Radnzic D.
        Dental crowding and its relationship to mesiodistal crown diameters and arch dimensions.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1988; 94: 50-56
        • Crossley A.M.
        • Campbell P.M.
        • Tadlock L.P.
        • Schneiderman E.
        • Buschang P.H.
        Is there a relationship between dental crowding and the size of the maxillary or mandibular apical base?.
        Angle Orthod. 2020; 90: 216-223
        • Baumrind S.
        • Korn E.L.
        • Boyd R.L.
        • Maxwell R.
        The decision to extract: Part 1--Interclinician agreement.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1996; 109: 297-309
        • Baumrind S.
        • Korn E.L.
        • Boyd R.L.
        • Maxwell R.
        The decision to extract: Part II. Analysis of clinicians’ stated reasons for extraction.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1996; 109: 393-402
        • Felton J.M.
        • Sinclair P.M.
        • Jones D.L.
        • Alexander R.G.
        A computerized analysis of the shape and stability of mandibular arch form.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1987; 92: 478-483
        • De la Cruz A.
        • Sampson P.
        • Little R.M.
        • Artun J.
        • Shapiro P.A.
        Long-term changes in arch form after orthodontic treatment and retention.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1995; 107: 518-530
        • Little R.M.
        • Riedel R.A.
        • Stein A.
        Mandibular arch length increase during the mixed dentition: postretention evaluation of stability and relapse.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1990; 97: 393-404
        • Burke S.P.
        • Silveira A.M.
        • Goldsmith L.J.
        • Yancey J.M.
        • Van Stewart A.V.
        • Scarfe W.C.
        A meta-analysis of mandibular intercanine width in treatment and postretention.
        Angle Orthod. 1998; 68: 53-60
        • Lundström A.F.
        Malocclusion of the teeth regarded as a problem in connection with the apical base.
        Int J Orthod Oral Surg Radiogr. 1925; 11: 1109-1133
        • Tweed C.H.
        Clinical orthodontics.
        Mosby, St Louis1966
        • Little R.M.
        • Wallen T.R.
        • Riedel R.A.
        Stability and relapse of mandibular anterior alignment-first premolar extraction cases treated by traditional edgewise orthodontics.
        Am J Orthod. 1981; 80: 349-365
        • Joondeph D.R.
        • Huang G.
        • Little R.
        Orthodontic retention and posttreatment changes: stability, retention, and relapse.
        in: Graber L.W. Vanarsdall Jr., R.L. Vig K.W.L. Huang G.J. Orthodontics current principles and techniques. 6th ed. Elsevier Mosby, St Louis2016: 981-997
        • Proffit W.R.
        • Fields H.W.
        • Sarver D.M.
        Contemporary orthodontics.
        6th ed. Elsevier Mosby, St Louis2018
        • Uysal T.
        • Yagci A.
        • Ozer T.
        • Veli I.
        • Ozturk A.
        Mandibular anterior bony support and incisor crowding: is there a relationship?.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2012; 142: 645-653
        • Cevidanes L.H.S.
        • Styner M.A.
        • Proffit W.R.
        Image analysis and superimposition of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography models.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006; 129: 611-618
        • Andrews L.F.
        • Andrews W.A.
        The six elements of orofacial harmony.
        Andrews J Orthod Orofac Harmony. 2000; 1: 13-22
        • Ronay V.
        • Miner R.M.
        • Will L.A.
        • Arai K.
        Mandibular arch form: the relationship between dental and basal anatomy.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008; 134: 430-438
        • Ball R.L.
        • Miner R.M.
        • Will L.A.
        • Arai K.
        Comparison of dental and apical base arch forms in Class II Division 1 and Class I malocclusions.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010; 138: 41-50
        • Gupta D.
        • Miner R.M.
        • Arai K.
        • Will L.A.
        Comparison of the mandibular dental and basal arch forms in adults and children with Class I and Class II malocclusions.
        Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop. 2010; 138: 10.e1-10.e8
        • Zou W.
        • Jiang J.
        • Xu T.
        • Wu J.
        Relationship between mandibular dental and basal bone arch forms for severe skeletal Class III patients.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2015; 147: 37-44
        • Aksu M.
        • Kocadereli I.
        Arch width changes in extraction and nonextraction treatment in Class I patients.
        Angle Orthod. 2005; 75: 948-952
        • Herzog C.
        • Konstantonis D.
        • Konstantoni N.
        • Eliades T.
        Arch-width changes in extraction vs nonextraction treatments in matched Class I borderline malocclusions.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2017; 151: 735-743
        • Andrews L.F.
        The six keys to normal occlusion.
        Am J Orthod. 1972; 62: 296-309
        • Ikoma M.
        • Arai K.
        Craniofacial morphology in women with Class I occlusion and severe maxillary anterior crowding.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2018; 153: 36-45
        • Quimby M.L.
        • Vig K.W.L.
        • Rashid R.G.
        • Firestone A.R.
        The accuracy and reliability of measurements made on computer-based digital models.
        Angle Orthod. 2004; 74: 298-303
        • Andrews L.F.
        Straight-wire: the concept and appliance.
        L.A. Wells, San Diego1989
        • Benjamini Y.
        • Hochberg Y.
        Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing.
        J R Stat Soc B. 1995; 57: 289-300
        • Bishara S.E.
        Textbook of orthodontics.
        W B Saunders Company, Philadelphia2001
        • Bayome M.
        • Park J.H.
        • Han S.H.
        • Baek S.H.
        • Sameshima G.T.
        • Kook Y.A.
        Evaluation of dental and basal arch forms using cone-beam CT and 3D virtual models of normal occlusion.
        Aust Orthod J. 2013; 29: 43-51
        • Sanin C.
        • Savara B.S.
        Factors that affect the alignment of the mandibular incisors: a longitudinal study.
        Am J Orthod. 1973; 64: 248-257
        • Kuntz T.R.
        • Staley R.N.
        • Bigelow H.F.
        • Kremenak C.R.
        • Kohout F.J.
        • Jakobsen J.R.
        Arch widths in adults with Class I crowded and Class III malocclusions compared with normal occlusions.
        Angle Orthod. 2008; 78: 597-603
        • Forster C.M.
        • Sunga E.
        • Chung C.H.
        Relationship between dental arch width and vertical facial morphology in untreated adults.
        Eur J Orthod. 2008; 30: 288-294
        • Leighton B.C.
        • Hunter W.S.
        Relationship between lower arch spacing/crowding and facial height and depth.
        Am J Orthod. 1982; 82: 418-425
        • Pepicelli A.
        • Woods M.
        • Briggs C.
        The mandibular muscles and their importance in orthodontics: a contemporary review.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005; 128: 774-780
        • Lundström A.
        Aetiology of crowding of the teeth (based on studies of twins and on morphological investigations) and its bearing on orthodontic treatment (expansion or extraction).
        Trans Eur Orthod Soc. 1951; : 176-189
        • Melo L.
        • Ono Y.
        • Takagi Y.
        Indicators of mandibular dental crowding in the mixed dentition.
        Pediatr Dent. 2001; 23: 118-122
        • Chaushu S.
        • Sharabi S.
        • Becker A.
        Tooth size in dentitions with buccal canine ectopia.
        Eur J Orthod. 2003; 25: 485-491
        • Mucedero M.
        • Ricchiuti M.R.
        • Cozza P.
        • Baccetti T.
        Prevalence rate and dentoskeletal features associated with buccally displaced maxillary canines.
        Eur J Orthod. 2013; 35: 305-309
        • Peck S.
        • Peck L.
        • Kataja M.
        The palatally displaced canine as a dental anomaly of genetic origin.
        Angle Orthod. 1994; 64: 249-256
        • Larsen H.J.
        • Sørensen H.B.
        • Artmann L.
        • Christensen I.J.
        • Kjaer I.
        Sagittal, vertical and transversal dimensions of the maxillary complex in patients with ectopic maxillary canines.
        Orthod Craniofac Res. 2010; 13: 34-39
        • Shigenobu N.
        • Hisano M.
        • Shima S.
        • Matsubara N.
        • Soma K.
        Patterns of dental crowding in the lower arch and contributing factors. A statistical study.
        Angle Orthod. 2007; 77: 303-310
        • Schour I.
        • Massler M.
        Studies in tooth development: the growth pattern of human teeth Part II.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1940; 27: 1918-1931
        • Dewel B.F.
        Clinical observations on the axial inclination of teeth.
        Am J Orthod. 1949; 35: 98-115
        • Slaj M.
        • Spalj S.
        • Pavlin D.
        • Illes D.
        • Slaj M.
        Dental archforms in dentoalveolar Class I, II and III.
        Angle Orthod. 2010; 80: 919-924
        • Hesby R.M.
        • Marshall S.D.
        • Dawson D.V.
        • Southard K.A.
        • Casko J.S.
        • Franciscus R.G.
        • et al.
        Transverse skeletal and dentoalveolar changes during growth.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006; 130: 721-731
        • Thilander B.
        Dentoalveolar development in subjects with normal occlusion. A longitudinal study between the ages of 5 and 31 years.
        Eur J Orthod. 2009; 31: 109-120
        • Lestrel P.E.
        • Takahashi O.
        • Kanazawa E.
        A quantitative approach for measuring crowding in the dental arch: Fourier descriptors.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2004; 125: 716-725
        • Kim S.H.
        • Shin S.M.
        • Choi Y.S.
        • Ko C.C.
        • Kim S.S.
        • Park S.B.
        • et al.
        Morphometric analysis of the maxillary root apex positions according to crowding severity.
        Orthod Craniofac Res. 2017; 20: 202-208