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American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection in the orthodontic literature—use and trends: A systematic review

      Highlights

      • The numbers of studies using collection material increased after the AAOF Legacy Project launch (2009).
      • The Michigan sample was the most-used sample for comparative studies.
      • The Burlington sample was the most-used sample for follow-up studies.
      • Further research should consider studying each collection to identify utilization predictors.

      Introduction

      The American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection is a digital repository of records from 9 craniofacial growth study collections in the United States and Canada. The purposes of this article were to describe the use of materials from the AAOF Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection in the orthodontic literature in comparative and follow-up studies, and to analyze trends before and after the project's launch in 2009.

      Methods

      An electronic search without date or language restriction was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, and CINAHL. Grey literature resources and the bibliographies of the selected studies were also consulted. Three independent reviewers assessed the studies for inclusion. The criteria were human subjects of any age, sex, and ethnicity; at least 1 of the 9 AAOF legacy collections used as either the main sample population or the comparison or control; and orthodontic outcomes assessed. Data were analyzed using STATA software (version 14.2; StataCorp, College Station, Tex).

      Results

      A total of 199 studies (127 follow-up, 72 comparative) were included. The most commonly used collection in comparative studies was the Michigan Growth sample. The number of published studies more than doubled after the AAOF Legacy Collection project testing and launch in 2009. The increase continued through 2010 to 2014, during which there was a trend to use multiple collections. The Burlington Growth collection was the most commonly used collection for follow-up studies. The overall use of the legacy collection showed a small increase in published studies after 2009.

      Conclusions

      The overall numbers of published studies in the comparative and follow-up categories increased after 2009, reflecting the efforts of the AAOF team and collection curators to make the records available worldwide. Further research should consider studying each collection to identify utilization predictors.
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      Appendix 2. References for included comparative studies

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        Long-term dentoskeletal effects and facial profile changes induced by bionator therapy.
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        • McNamara Jr., J.A.
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        • Dischinger T.G.
        A comparison of the Herbst and Frankel appliances in the treatment of Class II malocclusion.
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        • McNamara Jr., J.A.
        • Sigler L.M.
        • Franchi L.
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        • Baccetti T.
        Changes in occlusal relationships in mixed dentition patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion.
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        Posttreatment changes after successful correction of Class II malocclusions with the twin block appliance.
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        • Moll E.-M.
        Treatment effects of the Twin Block functional appliance and the Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance (MARA) in patients with Class II malocclusions [thesis].
        State University of New York at Buffalo, Ann Arbor, Michigan2012
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        Stability of quad-helix/crib therapy in dentoskeletal open bite: a long-term controlled study.
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        • German R.Z.
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        A longitudinal evaluation of the skeletal profile of treated and untreated skeletal Class II individuals.
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        • Reyes B.C.
        • Baccetti T.
        • McNamara Jr., J.A.
        An estimate of craniofacial growth in Class III malocclusion.
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        • Rubin R.L.
        • Baccetti T.
        • McNamara Jr., J.A.
        Mandibular second molar eruption difficulties related to the maintenance of arch perimeter in the mixed dentition.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2012; 141: 146-152
        • Saperstein E.L.
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        • Padwa B.L.
        Facial growth in children with complete cleft of the primary palate and intact secondary palate.
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        • Hoag J.F.
        Prediction of the mesiodistal widths of maxillary permanent canines and premolars.
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        A revision of the Hixon and Oldfather mixed-dentition prediction method.
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        • Staley R.N.
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        • Martin J.F.
        Prediction of lower canine and premolar widths in the mixed dentition.
        Am J Orthod. 1979; 76: 300-309
        • Suri S.
        • Ross R.B.
        • Tompson B.D.
        Craniofacial morphology and adolescent facial growth in Pierre Robin sequence.
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        • Tompson B.D.
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        Cranial base, maxillary and mandibular morphology in Down syndrome.
        Angle Orthod. 2010; 80: 861-869
        • Thompson W.D.
        Dental and skeletal changes from Herbst appliance treatment: A cephalometric longitudinal study [thesis].
        University of Louisville, Ann Arbor, Michigan2001
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        Radiographic Study of Patients Treated with the Reinforced Banded Herbst Appliance [thesis].
        West Virginia University, Ann Arbor, Michigan2015
        • Toth L.R.
        • McNamara Jr., J.A.
        Treatment effects produced by the twin-block appliance and the FR-2 appliance of Frankel compared with an untreated Class II sample.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1999; 116: 597-609
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        • Ross R.B.
        • McNamara Jr., J.A.
        • Johnston Jr., L.E.
        A retrospective comparison of frontal facial dimensions in alveolar-bone-grafted and nongrafted unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.
        Angle Orthod. 1997; 67: 389-394
        • Urbanova W.
        • Brudnicki A.
        • Strydom H.
        • Bronkhorst E.M.
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        Nasolabial aesthetics correlates poorly with skeletal symmetry in unilateral cleft lip and palate.
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        • Dischinger T.
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        Treatment effects of the edgewise Herbst appliance: a cephalometric and tomographic investigation.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006; 130: 582-593
        • Vanlaecken R.
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        • Martin C.
        • Ngan P.
        Class III correction using an inter-arch spring-loaded module.
        Prog Orthod. 2014; 15: 32
        • Westwood P.V.
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        Long-term effects of Class III treatment with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy followed by fixed appliances.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003; 123: 306-320
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        Arch dimension changes from successful slow maxillary expansion of unilateral posterior crossbite.
        Angle Orthod. 2011; 81: 616-623

      Appendix 3. References for included follow-up studies

        • Ackerman R.J.
        The Michigan School Study cephalometric norms expressed in template form.
        Am J Orthod. 1979; 75: 282-290
        • Alexander A.E.
        • McNamara Jr., J.A.
        • Franchi L.
        • Baccetti T.
        Semilongitudinal cephalometric study of craniofacial growth in untreated Class III malocclusion.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009; 135 (discussion, 700-701): 700.e1-700.e14
        • Anderson B.L.
        • Thompson G.W.
        • Popovich F.
        Evolutionary dental changes.
        Am J Phys Anthropol. 1975; 43: 95-102
        • Anderson D.L.
        • Popovich F.
        Association of relatively delayed emergence of mandibular molars with molar reduction and molar position.
        Am J Phys Anthropol. 1981; 54: 369-376
        • Anderson D.L.
        • Thompson G.W.
        • Popovich F.
        Adolescent variation in weight, height, and mandibular length in 111 females.
        Hum Biol. 1975; 47: 309-319
        • Anderson D.L.
        • Thompson G.W.
        • Popovich F.
        Age of attainment of mineralization stages of the permanent dentition.
        J Forensic Sci. 1976; 21: 191-200
        • Anderson D.L.
        • Thompson G.W.
        • Popovich F.
        Tooth, chin, bone and body size correlations.
        Am J Phys Anthropol. 1977; 46: 7-11
        • Baccetti T.
        • Franchi L.
        • McNamara Jr., J.A.
        Longitudinal growth changes in subjects with deepbite.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011; 140: 202-209
        • Ball G.
        • Woodside D.
        • Tompson B.
        • Hunter W.S.
        • Posluns J.
        Relationship between cervical vertebral maturation and mandibular growth.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011; 139: e455-e461
        • Bastir M.
        • Rosas A.
        • O'Higgins P.
        Craniofacial levels and the morphological maturation of the human skull.
        J Anat. 2006; 209: 637-654
        • Behrents R.G.
        A treatise on the continuum of growth in the aging craniofacial skeleton (volumes i and ii) (adult) [thesis].
        University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan1984
        • Bergman R.T.
        • Waschak J.
        • Borzabadi-Farahani A.
        • Murphy N.C.
        Longitudinal study of cephalometric soft tissue profile traits between the ages of 6 and 18 years.
        Angle Orthod. 2014; 84: 48-55
        • Bishara S.E.
        • Hoppens B.J.
        • Jakobsen J.R.
        • Kohout F.J.
        Changes in the molar relationship between the deciduous and permanent dentitions: a longitudinal study.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1988; 93: 19-28
        • Bishara S.E.
        • Jakobsen J.R.
        Changes in overbite and face height from 5 to 45 years of age in normal subjects.
        Angle Orthod. 1998; 68: 209-216
        • Bishara S.E.
        • Jakobsen J.R.
        • Hession T.J.
        • Treder J.E.
        Soft tissue profile changes from 5 to 45 years of age.
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