Bimaxillary protrusion with an atrophic alveolar defect: Orthodontics, autogenous chin-block graft, soft tissue augmentation, and an implant

  • Grace S.C. Chiu
    Lecturer, Newton Implant Center, HsinChu City, Taiwan
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  • Chris H.N. Chang
    Director, Beethoven Orthodontic Center, HsinChu City, Taiwan
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  • W. Eugene Roberts
    Address correspondence to: W. Eugene Roberts, Indiana University, 8260 Skipjack Dr, Indianapolis, IN 46236.
    Professor emeritus, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Ind, adjunct professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indiana University and Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Ind, visiting professor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, Calif
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      • Augmented alveolar defects are good sites for implants.
      • Space closure of the grafted defect is contraindicated.
      • Activated pericytes can be stimulated to differentiate into osteoblasts.
      • A thick block of autogenous cortical bone resorbs slowly.
      • It can support an implant and is more stable initially than vital alveolar bone.
      Bimaxillary protrusion in a 28-year-old woman was complicated by multiple missing, restoratively compromised, or hopeless teeth. The maxillary right central incisor had a history of avulsion and replantation that subsequently evolved into generalized external root resorption with Class III mobility and severe loss of the supporting periodontium. This complex malocclusion had a discrepancy index of 21, and 8 additional points were scored for the atrophic dental implant site (maxillary right central incisor). The comprehensive treatment plan included extraction of 4 teeth (both maxillary first premolars, the maxillary right central incisor, and the mandibular right first molar), orthodontic closure of all spaces except for the future implant site (maxillary right central incisor), augmentation of the alveolar defect with an autogenous chin-block graft, enhancement of the gingival biotype with a connective tissue graft, and an implant-supported prosthesis. Orthodontists must understand the limitations of bone grafts. Augmented alveolar defects are slow to completely turn over to living bone, so they are usually good sites for implants but respond poorly to orthodontic space closure. However, postsurgical orthodontic treatment is often indicated to optimally finish the esthetic zone before placing the final prosthesis. The latter was effectively performed for this patient, resulting in a total treatment time of about 36 months for comprehensive interdisciplinary care. An excellent functional and esthetic result was achieved.
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