Advertisement

Three-dimensional orthodontic force measurements

  • Hisham M. Badawi
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests to: Hisham M. Badawi, Orthodontic Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, 4048 Dentistry/Pharmacy Centre Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2N8.
    Affiliations
    Postgraduate student, Orthodontic Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • Roger W. Toogood
    Affiliations
    Associate professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jason P.R. Carey
    Affiliations
    Assistant professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • Giseon Heo
    Affiliations
    Assistant professor of statistics, Orthodontic Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • Paul W. Major
    Affiliations
    Professor and director, Orthodontic Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Search for articles by this author

      Introduction

      Until recently, much of the orthodontic biomechanics literature was restricted to 2-dimensional experimental studies and, more recently, to assumption-based 3-dimensional computer modeling. There is little evidence in the literature regarding 3-dimensional experimental measurements and analysis of orthodontic force systems.

      Methods

      The purpose of this study was the design, construction, and validation of a laboratory-based human mouth model capable of accurately measuring forces and moments applied by orthodontic fixed appliances on all teeth in 1 arch. A high canine malocclusion was simulated, and forces and moments acting on the canine, lateral incisor, and premolar were measured with passive and conventional ligation.

      Results

      We were successful in building this human mouth model. The error in force measurements of the 14 transducers was 1.54%. The force system resulting from passive ligation brackets was considerably different from that of conventional ligation.

      Conclusions

      This method will allow us, for the first time in the history of our specialty, to determine with great accuracy the forces acting on orthodontically treated teeth. Future research will focus on simulating many types of orthodontic clinical applications of full-fixed or partial-fixed appliances.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Burstone C.J.
        • Marcotte M.R.
        Problem solving in orthodontics: Goal-oriented treatment strategies.
        Quintessence, Chicago2000
        • Burstone C.J.
        • Koenig H.A.
        Force systems from an ideal arch.
        Am J Orthod. 1974; 65: 270-289
        • Proffit W.R.
        • Fields H.W.
        Contemporary orthodontics.
        3rd ed. Mosby, St Louis2000
        • Smith R.J.
        • Burstone C.J.
        Mechanics of tooth movement.
        Am J Orthod. 1984; 85: 294-307
        • Menghi C.
        • Planert J.
        • Melsen B.
        3-D experimental identification of force systems from orthodontic loops activated for first order corrections.
        Angle Orthod. 1999; 69: 49-57
        • Friedrich D.
        • Rosarius N.
        • Rau G.
        • Diedrich P.
        Measuring system for in vivo recording of force systems in orthodontic treatment—concept and analysis of accuracy.
        J Biomech. 1999; 32: 81-85
        • Friedrich D.
        • Rosarius N.
        • Schwindke P.
        • Rau G.
        • Diedrich P.
        In vitro testing of a measuring system for in vivo recording of orthodontically applied forces and moments in the multiband technique.
        Part II. J Orofac Orthop. 1998; 59: 82-89
        • Kuo B.
        • Takakuda K.
        • Miyairi H.
        Development of an orthodontic simulator for measurement of orthodontic forces.
        J Med Dent Sci. 2001; 48: 15-21
        • Lapatki B.G.
        • Bartholomeyczik J.
        • Ruther P.
        • Jonas I.E.
        • Paul O.
        Smart bracket for multi-dimensional force and moment measurement.
        J Dent Res. 2007; 86: 73-78
        • Bourauel C.
        • Drescher D.
        • Thier M.
        An experimental apparatus for the simulation of three-dimensional movements in orthodontics.
        J Biomed Eng. 1992; 14: 371-378
        • Drescher D.
        • Bourauel C.
        • Thier M.
        Application of the orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS) in orthodontics.
        Eur J Orthod. 1991; 13: 169-178
        • Lapatki B.G.
        • Paul O.
        Smart brackets for 3D-force-moment measurements in orthodontic research and therapy—developmental status and prospects.
        J Orofac Orthop. 2007; 68: 377-396
        • Baccetti T.
        • Franchi L.
        Friction produced by types of elastomeric ligatures in treatment mechanics with the preadjusted appliance.
        Angle Orthod. 2006; 76: 211-216
        • Chimenti C.
        • Franchi L.
        • Di Giuseppe M.G.
        • Lucci M.
        Friction of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures with different dimensions.
        Angle Orthod. 2005; 75: 421-425
        • Rhee J.N.
        • Chun Y.S.
        • Row J.
        A comparison between friction and frictionless mechanics with a new typodont simulation system.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001; 119: 292-299
        • Hain M.
        • Dhopatkar A.
        • Rock P.
        A comparison of different ligation methods on friction.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006; 130: 666-670
        • Kusy R.P.
        • Whitley J.Q.
        Friction between different wire-bracket configurations and materials.
        Semin Orthod. 1997; 3: 166-177
        • Clocheret K.
        • Willems G.
        • Carels C.
        • Celis J.P.
        Dynamic frictional behaviour of orthodontic archwires and brackets.
        Eur J Orthod. 2004; 26: 163-170
        • Dickson J.A.
        • Jones S.P.
        • Davies E.H.
        A comparison of the frictional characteristics of five initial alignment wires and stainless steel brackets at three bracket to wire angulations—an in vitro study.
        Br J Orthod. 1994; 21: 15-22
        • Downing A.
        • McCabe J.
        • Gordon P.
        A study of frictional forces between orthodontic brackets and archwires.
        Br J Orthod. 1994; 21: 349-357
        • Henao S.P.
        • Kusy R.P.
        Evaluation of the frictional resistance of conventional and self-ligating bracket designs using standardized archwires and dental typodonts.
        Angle Orthod. 2004; 74: 202-211
        • Bednar J.R.
        • Gruendeman G.W.
        • Sandrik J.L.
        A comparative study of frictional forces between orthodontic brackets and arch wires.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1991; 100: 513-522
        • Thorstenson G.A.
        • Kusy R.P.
        Resistance to sliding of self-ligating brackets versus conventional stainless steel twin brackets with second-order angulation in the dry and wet (saliva) states.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001; 120: 361-370
        • Drescher D.
        • Bourauel C.
        • Schumacher H.A.
        Frictional forces between bracket and arch wire.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1989; 96: 397-404
        • Hain M.
        • Dhopatkar A.
        • Rock P.
        The effect of ligation method on friction in sliding mechanics.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003; 123: 416-422
        • Kapila S.
        • Angolkar P.V.
        • Duncanson Jr., M.G.
        • Nanda R.S.
        Evaluation of friction between edgewise stainless steel brackets and orthodontic wires of four alloys.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1990; 98: 117-126
        • Gurgel J.A.
        • Kerr S.
        • Powers J.M.
        • LeCrone V.
        Force-deflection properties of superelastic nickel-titanium archwires.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001; 120: 378-382
        • Gurgel J.A.
        • Kerr S.
        • Powers J.M.
        • Pinzan A.
        Torsional properties of commercial nickel-titanium wires during activation and deactivation.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001; 120: 76-79
        • Hazel R.J.
        • Rohan G.J.
        • West V.C.
        Force relaxation in orthodontic arch wires.
        Am J Orthod. 1984; 86: 396-402
        • Lundgren D.
        • Owman-Moll P.
        • Kurol J.
        • Martensson B.
        Accuracy of orthodontic force and tooth movement measurements.
        Br J Orthod. 1996; 23: 241-248
        • Coimbra M.E.R.
        • Penedo N.D.
        • de Gouvea J.P.
        • Elias C.N.
        • Souza Araujo M.T.
        • Coelho P.G.
        Mechanical testing and finite element analysis of orthodontic teardrop loop.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008; 133 (e9-13): 188
        • Cattaneo P.M.
        • Dalstra M.
        • Melsen B.
        The finite element method: a tool to study orthodontic tooth movement.
        J Dent Res. 2005; 84: 428-433
        • Chang Y.I.
        • Shin S.J.
        • Baek S.H.
        Three-dimensional finite element analysis in distal en masse movement of the maxillary dentition with the multiloop edgewise archwire.
        Eur J Orthod. 2004; 26: 339-345
        • Clement R.
        • Schneider J.
        • Brambs H.J.
        • Wunderlich A.
        • Geiger M.
        • Sander F.G.
        Quasi-automatic 3D finite element model generation for individual single-rooted teeth and periodontal ligament.
        Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2004; 73: 135-144
        • Dorow C.
        • Sander F.G.
        Development of a model for the simulation of orthodontic load on lower first premolars using the finite element method.
        J Orofac Orthop. 2005; 66: 208-218
        • Fotos P.G.
        • Spyrakos C.C.
        • Bernard D.O.
        Orthodontic forces generated by a simulated archwire appliance evaluated by the finite element method.
        Angle Orthod. 1990; 60: 277-282
        • Eliades T.
        • Eliades G.
        • Silikas N.
        • Watts D.C.
        In vitro degradation of polyurethane orthodontic elastomeric modules.
        J Oral Rehabil. 2005; 32: 72-77
        • Taloumis L.J.
        • Smith T.M.
        • Hondrum S.O.
        • Lorton L.
        Force decay and deformation of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures.
        Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1997; 111: 1-11
        • Dorow C.
        • Krstin N.
        • Sander F.G.
        Experiments to determine the material properties of the periodontal ligament.
        J Orofac Orthop. 2002; 63: 94-104
        • McGuinness N.J.
        • Wilson A.N.
        • Jones M.L.
        • Middleton J.
        A stress analysis of the periodontal ligament under various orthodontic loadings.
        Eur J Orthod. 1991; 13: 231-242
        • van Driel W.D.
        • van Leeuwen E.J.
        • Von den Hoff J.W.
        • Maltha J.C.
        • Kuijpers-Jagtman A.M.
        Time-dependent mechanical behaviour of the periodontal ligament.
        Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2000; 214: 497-504

      Linked Article

      • Appearances count when industry underwrites research
        American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial OrthopedicsVol. 137Issue 1
        • Preview
          Leafing through the October 2009 issue of the AJO-DO, I recognized the apparatus and illustrations in the article, “Three-dimensional orthodontic force measurements” (Badawi HM, Toogood RW, Carey JPR, Heo G, Major PW. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009;136:518-28). The images had been presented months ago to my orthodontic residents by the representative of a popular supplier of orthodontic materials, with the representative's claim that “Now we have scientific proof that our bracket is superior.”
        • Full-Text
        • PDF