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Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 1: Antiquity to the mid-19th century

      Orthodontics had its beginnings in the time of the ancient Egyptians, who used crude metal bands and catgut, but it was not until the late 18th century that the first practical appliances came into use. These were fine-tuned during the early 1900s; today’s mechanisms are merely refinements. Major changes occurred when practitioners—originally physicians—began turning their attention from cosmetic “regulating” to occlusion and stability, while empiricism gave way to objectivity and the scientific method. The purpose of this article is to review the history of orthodontics from antiquity to the modern era. The article is divided into chapters that will be presented serially in every other issue of the Journal.
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