Some facts concerning the open coil spring

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      A review of the literature concerning coil springs reveals various criteria for selection and use of coil springs in orthodontics. For example, it is emphasized that the amount of force to be used cannot be set arbitrarily, but must be governed by the firmness and sensitivity of the teeth, while, on the other hand, one operator recommends a coil Math Eq inch long adjusted or compressed Math Eq inch on all patients.
      A systematic tabulation of data in conventional units is presented, showing the relationship in coil springs between spring diameter, wire diameter, core diameter, amount of compression, and pressure developed.
      A method of forming and adjusting coil springs is described wherein spring wire is wrapped around a core of a selected size and stretched to twice its length, one end of the spring being placed against a bracket or stop on the arch wire, and the other end being bent in such a fashion as to be readily accessible for subsequent movement to adjust the spring compression.
      Literature is reviewed which indicates the desirability of applying a mild continuous corrective force to the tooth under treatment, the data herein showing that such force can be ideally provided by an elongated coil spring.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Arnold Edmond B.
        One Use of the Arnold Coil Spring.
        Int. J. Orthodontia. 1931; 17: 688
        • Arnold Edmond B.
        • Cunningham J.S.
        Coil Springs as an Application of Force.
        Int. J. Orthodontia. 1934; 20: 577-579
        • Bell Walter
        A Study of Applied Force as Related to the Use of Elastics and Coil Springs.
        Angle Orthodontists. 1951; 21: 151
        • Byrnes B.S.
        Correcting Irregularities by the Spring of Gold Bands.
        in: Dental Cosmos. 1886: 278
        • Byrnes B.S.
        Int. J. Orthodontia. 1919; 5 (referred to in): 248
        • Johnson Joseph
        Twin Wire Alignment Appliance.
        Int. J. Orthodontia. 1934; 20: 963
        • Johnson Joseph
        The Construction and the Manipulation of the Twin Wire Mechanism.
        Am. J. Orthodontics and Oral Surg. 1941; 27: 205-215
        • Nagamoto George
        Contraction Coil Spring, Its Uses and How to Make It.
        Am. J. Orthodontics and Oral Surg. 1947; 33: 392
        • Oppenheim Albin
        Human Tissue Response to Orthodontic Intervention of Short and Long Duration.
        Am. J. Orthodontics and Oral Surg. 1942; 28: 267
        • Oppenheim Albin
        A Possibility for Physiologic Orthodontic Movement.
        Am. J. Orthodontics and Oral Surg. 1944; 30: 278
        • Orban Balint
        Biologic Problems in Orthodontia.
        J. Am. Dent. A. 1936; 23: 1862
        • Paulich Frank
        Measuring of Orthodontic Forces.
        Am. J. Orthodontics and Oral Surg. 1939; 25: 817
        • Rose Arnold S.
        Some Metallurgic Aspects of Orthodontic Materials.
        Am. J. Orthodontics and Oral Surg. 1941; 27: 127